Coloring books for adults is an offspring of art therapy which is a mental health profession that is the process of making and creating artwork which intends to "explore feelings, reconcile emotional conflicts, foster self-awareness, manage behavior and addictions, develop social skills, improve reality orientation, reduce anxiety and increase self-esteem" (according to the American Art Therapy Association). So basically, it's similar to good old therapy. Also, art therapy is not only about mental health and improving yourself - it's a form of personal expression, as well.
When you are planning to hold a Sponge-Bob birthday party, try to send the invitations around 2-3 weeks ahead of the party date. Order matching invitations or make your own. Cut a starfish or pineapple shapes from card stock paper.
However, it was little Enceladus that gave astronomers their greatest shock. Even though the existence of Enceladus has been known since it was discovered by William Herschel in 1789, its enchantingly weird character was not fully appreciated until this century. Indeed, until the Voyagers flew past it, little was known about the moon. However, Enceladus has always been considered one of the more interesting members of Saturn's abundantly moonstruck family, for a number of very good reasons. First of all, it is amazingly bright. The quantity of sunlight that an object in our Solar System reflects back is termed its albedo, and this is calculated primarily by the color of the object's ground coating. The albedo of the dazzling Enceladus is almost a mirror-like 100%. Basically, this means that the surface of the little moon is richly covered with ice crystals--and that these crystals are regularly and frequently replenished. When the Voyagers flew over Enceladus in the 1980s, they found that the object was indeed abundantly coated with glittering ice. It was also being constantly, frequently repaved. Immense basins and valleys were filled with pristine white, fresh snow. Craters were cut in half--one side of the crater remaining a visible cavity pockmarking the moon's surface, and the other side completely buried in the bright, white snow. Remarkably, Enceladus circles Saturn within its so-called E ring, which is the widest of the planet's numerous rings. Just behind the moon is a readily-observed bulge within that ring, that astronomers determined was the result of the sparkling emission emanating from icy volcanoes (cryovolcanoes) that follow Enceladus wherever it wanders around its parent planet. The cryovolanoes studding Enceladus are responsible for the frequent repaving of its surface. In 2008, Cassini confirmed that the cryovolanic stream was composed of ordinary water, laced with carbon dioxide, potassium salts, carbon monoxide, and a plethora of other organic materials. Tidal squeezing, caused by Saturn and the nearby sister moons Dione and Tethys, keep the interior of Enceladus pleasantly warm, and its water in a liquid state--thus allowing the cryovolcanoes to keep spewing out their watery eruptions. The most enticing mystery, of course, is determining exactly how much water Enceladus holds. Is there merely a lake-sized body of water, or a sea, or a global ocean? The more water there is, the more it will circulate and churn--and the more Enceladus quivers and shakes, the more likely it is that it can brew up a bit of life.
GRAIL's main and extended science missions generated the highest resolution gravity field map of any celestial body. The map will provide a better scientific understanding of how our planet and other rocky planets in our Sun's family were born and later evolved.
Dr. Sotin and Dr. Vance are both members of the Icy Worlds team at JPL, which is part of the multi-institutional NASA Astrobiology Institute based at Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California.
First launched as GRAIL A and GRAIL B in September 2011, the two probes, playfully dubbed Ebb and Flow, operated in an almost-circular orbit near the lunar poles at an altitude of about 34 miles until their mission concluded in December 2012. The distance between the twin probes altered slightly as they flew over areas of lesser or greater gravity that resulted from visible features--such as craters and mountains--as well as by hidden masses secreted beneath our Moon's surface.